Any breach of the security rules for a system or service. This includes attempts to gain unauthorised access, the unauthorised use of systems for the processing or storing of data, malicious disruption or denial of service, and changes to a system’s firmware, software or hardware without the owner’s consent.

Incident response plan

A predetermined plan of action to be undertaken in the event of a cyber incident.


A signal that a cyber incident may have occurred or is in progress.

Industrial Control System (ICS)

An information system used to control industrial processes or infrastructure assets. Commonly found in manufacturing industries, product handling, production and distribution.

Information security policy

The directives, regulations, rules, and practices that form an organisation’s strategy for managing, protecting and distributing information.

International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

An independent body that develops voluntary industry standards, including two major information security management standards: ISO 27001 and ISO 27002.

Internet of things (IoT)

The ability of everyday objects, such as kettles, fridges and televisions, to connect to the internet.

Intrusion Detection System/Intrusion Detection and Prevention (IDS/IDP)

Hardware or software that finds and helps prevent malicious activity on corporate networks.

IP spoofing

A tactic used by attackers to supply a false IP address in an attempt to trick the user or a cyber security solution into believing it is a legitimate actor.

ISO 27001

The gold standard in information security management systems (ISMS), demonstrating the highest level of accreditation.



The removal of a device’s security restrictions, with the intention of installing unofficial apps and making modifications to the system. Typically applied to a mobile phone.

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