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Ransomware

Ransomware is a type of malware (malicious software) which encrypts all the data on a PC or mobile device, blocking the data owner’s access to it.
After the infection happens, the victim receives a message that tells him/her that a certain amount of money must be paid (usually in Bitcoins) in order to get the decryption key. Usually, there is also a time-limit for the ransom to be paid. There is no guarantee that the decryption key will be handed over if the victim pays the ransom. The most reliable solution is to back up your data in at least three different places (for redundancy) and keep those backups up to date, so you don’t lose important progress.

Red team

A group authorised and organised to emulate a potential adversary’s attack or exploitation capabilities against an enterprise’s cyber security posture.

Redundancy

Additional or alternative systems, sub-systems, assets, or processes that maintain a degree of overall functionality in case of loss or failure of another system, sub-system, asset, or process.

Remote Access Trojan (RAT)

Remote Access Trojans (RATs) use the victim’s access permissions and infect computers to give cyber attackers unlimited access to the data on the PC.
Cyber criminals can use RATs to exfiltrate confidential information. RATs include backdoors into the computer system and can enlist the PC into a botnet, while also spreading to other devices. Current RATs can bypass strong authentication and can access sensitive applications, which are later used to exfiltrate information to cyber criminal-controlled servers and websites.

Rootkit

A set of software tools with administrator-level access privileges installed on an information system and designed to hide the presence of the tools, maintain the access privileges, and conceal the activities conducted by the tools.

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